Facilities for Fusion Materials and Plasma-Material Interaction Studies

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This page (under development) provides an inventory of research groups and user facilities that are available to produce neutron irradiation and fast ion surrogate irradiation for study of fusion materials and plasma material interaction (PMI).

(There is overlap between ion beam facilities used to simulate neutron irradiation and ion beam facilities used for characterization of fusion materials. For now, the information on this page is oriented towards irradiation for the production of damage. We may want to have a separate page or a separate section on this page with pointers to facilities for characterization of fusion materials.)

Contents

Facilities for neutron irradiation for fusion studies

There are several kinds of neutron sources for fusion materials studies. In order to get the proper energy spectrum one would have to use a D+T source and this can be achieved in beam-plasma interaction or in beam-solid interaction. Higher neutron intensity can be achieved by neutron stripping or by spallation in beam-target interaction; these processes produce a much broader energy spectrum than the D+T reaction. Nuclear reactors are also used for fusion materials irradiation, but then the high-energy (14 MeV) component is missing. Presently available neutron sources of any kind do not achieve the fluence that is relevant for an operating fusion reactor; this high fluence is the objective of the IFMIF project and related activities.

For a review of concepts for intense neutron sources for fusion studies see (Kuteev et al., 2010),[1] (Zinkle and Mösslang, 2013),[2] (Vladimirov and Möslang, 2004),[3] ().

For reviews and further information about neutron-based fusion materials studies see (Knaster et al. Nature Physics, 2016).[4], (IAEA TECDOC No. 1724, 2013)[5], (), etc.

Neutron sources employing the D+T reaction for fusion materials studies

Note: there are many industrial, medical and security uses of compact 14 MeV neutron sources and there are many suppliers of such devices; for example see (Valkovic, CRC Press, 2015).[6] The following list is meant to be limited to facilities that are used for fusion materials studies, among other applications. In some cases we are just guessing.

  • ASP 14 MeV neutron irradiation facility at Aldermaston, UK.
  • Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG) at ENEA, Frascati, Rome, Italy.
  • Fusion Neutron Source (FNS) at JAEA/QST in Japan.
  • Fusion neutron source OKTAVIAN at Osaka University in Japan.
  • SNEG-13 in St Petersburg.
  • 14 MeV neutron source in Dresden.

More links to follow.

Stripping and spallation neutron sources for fusion materials studies

More links to follow.

Nuclear reactor neutron sources for fusion materials studies

More links to follow.

International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) Design Activity

IFMIF is a design project for an intense neutron source for fusion materials studies at high radiation damage levels. The neutrons will be generated by a Li(d,xn) stripping reaction, bombarding liquid lithium with deuterium ions at energy of about 40 MeV. IFMIF is currently in the Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) phase as part of the Japan-Europe Broader Approach to fusion energy.

Facilities for ion irradiation for fusion studies

Electrostatic ion accelerators

Single and Tandem accelerators; Van de Graaff, Pelletron, Tandetron and other.

Other ion sources for fusion studies

More links to follow.

Other lists of ion beam facilities relevant to fusion

  • Table 1, Experimental capabilities of selected ion accelerator facilities used for radiation damage studies of nuclear materials, in (Wady et al., NIMA, 2016).[8]
  • Table I, Research centers in the world dedicated to irradiation technologies, in the conference paper (Voyevodin et al., 2014).[9]
  • Note the report of a Workshop on Science Applications of a Triple Beam Capability for Advanced Nuclear Energy Materials (LLNL, 2009); in particular Table III, a list of the various multi-ion-beam and ion-beam–TEM facilities in the world.

Facilities for characterization of fusion materials and of plasma-material interaction

This Section is a placeholder; we need to find a better source of data.

Other inventories or databases of neutron sources and ion beam irradiation facilities

The following links provide broader inventories of possibly relevant neutron and ion sources, without special focus on applications to fusion materials studies or fusion-oriented plasma-material interaction.

Neutron sources

Ion sources

Relevant conferences

International Conference on Ion Beam Modification Of Materials (IBMM).

International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis (IBA).

  • 23rd IBA, 15-21 Oct 2017, Shanghai, China.
  • 22nd IBA, 14-19 Jun 2015, Opatija, Croatia.
  • 21st IBA, 23-28 Jun 2013, Seattle, WA, USA. (Journal link: NIMB 2014, v332.)

International Symposium on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter (SHIM).

International Conference on Computer Simulation of Radiation Effects in Solids (COSIRES).

International Meeting on Recent Developments in the Study of Radiation Effects in Matter (REM).

  • 9th REM, 26-28 Oct 2016, Kyoto, Japan.
  • 8th REM, 20-23 Sep 2015, Kerteminde, Denmark.
  • 7th REM, 09-12 Jul 2014, Budapest, Hungary.
  • 6th REM, 23-25 Oct 2013, Gatlinburg, TN, USA.
  • 5th REM, 01-05 Jul 2012, Kona, HI, USA.

International Conference on Radiation Effects in Insulators (REI).

References

  1. Kuteev, B. V., P. R. Goncharov, V. Yu Sergeev, and V. I. Khripunov. "Intense fusion neutron sources." Plasma physics reports 36, no. 4 (2010): 281-317. Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1063780X1004001X
  2. Zinkle, Steven J., and Anton Möslang. "Evaluation of irradiation facility options for fusion materials research and development." Fusion Engineering and Design 88, no. 6 (2013): 472-482. Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2013.02.081
  3. Vladimirov, P., and A. Möslang. "Comparison of material irradiation conditions for fusion, spallation, stripping and fission neutron sources." Journal of nuclear materials 329 (2004): 233-237. Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2004.04.030
  4. Knaster, J., A. Möslang, T. Muroga: "Materials research for fusion", Nature Physics 2016 ..., online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nphys3735
  5. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA): "Applications of Research Reactors towards Research on Materials for Nuclear Fusion Technology" (Proceedings of a Technical Meeting held in Vienna, 27-29 June 2011), IAEA TECDOC No. 1724 (2013). Online: http://www-pub.iaea.org/books/IAEABooks/10574/Applications-of-Research-Reactors-towards-Research-on-Materials-for-Nuclear-Fusion-Technology
  6. Valkovic, Vladivoj. 14 MeV Neutrons: Physics and Applications. CRC Press, 2015.
  7. Knaster, Juan, A. Ibarra, J. Abal, A. Abou-Sena, F. Arbeiter, F. Arranz, J. M. Arroyo et al. "The accomplishment of the Engineering Design Activities of IFMIF/EVEDA: The European–Japanese project towards a Li (d, xn) fusion relevant neutron source." Nuclear Fusion 55, no. 8 (2015): 086003. Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/55/8/086003
  8. Wady, P. T., A. Draude, S. M. Shubeita, A. D. Smith, N. Mason, S. M. Pimblott, and E. Jimenez-Melero. "Accelerated radiation damage test facility using a 5MV tandem ion accelerator." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 806 (2016): 109-116. Online: doi:10.1016/j.nima.2015.09.088
  9. Voyevodin, V. N., V. V. Bryk, A. S. Kalchenko, I. M. Neklyudov, and G. D. Tolstolutskaya. "Simulation technologies in modern radiation material science." Вопросы атомной науки и техники (2014). Online: pdf
  10. Katabuchi, Tatsuya, and Danas Ridikas. "Compendium of Neutron Beam Facilities for High Precision Nuclear Data Measurements." IAEA-TECDOC-1743 (2014). Online: http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/TE-1743_web.pdf.

Further reading

To follow.

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