Facilities for Fusion Materials and Plasma-Material Interaction Studies
This page (under development) provides an inventory of research groups and user facilities that are available to produce neutron irradiation and fast ion surrogate irradiation for study of fusion materials and plasma material interaction (PMI).
(There is overlap between ion beam facilities used to simulate neutron irradiation and ion beam facilities used for characterization of fusion materials. For now, the information on this page is oriented towards irradiation for the production of damage. We may want to have a separate page or a separate section on this page with pointers to facilities for characterization of fusion materials.)
Facilities for neutron irradiation for fusion studies
There are several kinds of neutron sources for fusion materials studies. In order to get the proper energy spectrum one would have to use a D+T source and this can be achieved in beam-plasma interaction or in beam-solid interaction. Higher neutron intensity can be achieved by neutron stripping or by spallation in beam-target interaction; these processes produce a much broader energy spectrum than the D+T reaction. Nuclear reactors are also used for fusion materials irradiation, but then the high-energy (14 MeV) component is missing. Presently available neutron sources of any kind do not achieve the fluence that is relevant for an operating fusion reactor; this high fluence is the objective of the IFMIF project and related activities.
Neutron sources employing the D+T reaction for fusion materials studies
Note: there are many industrial, medical and security uses of compact 14 MeV neutron sources and there are many suppliers of such devices; for example see (Valkovic, CRC Press, 2015). The following list is meant to be limited to facilities that are used for fusion materials studies, among other applications. In some cases we are just guessing.
- ASP 14 MeV neutron irradiation facility at Aldermaston, UK.
- Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG) at ENEA, Frascati, Rome, Italy.
- Fusion Neutron Source (FNS) at JAEA/QST in Japan.
- Fusion neutron source OKTAVIAN at Osaka University in Japan.
- SNEG-13 in St Petersburg.
- 14 MeV neutron source in Dresden.
More links to follow.
Stripping and spallation neutron sources for fusion materials studies
- ISIS neutron facility at the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, UK.
- Neutrons for Science (NFS) facility at GANIL, Caen, France. (Under construction; first neutrons expected in early 2017.)
More links to follow.
Nuclear reactor neutron sources for fusion materials studies
- High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN, USA.
- Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID, USA.
More links to follow.
International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) Design Activity
IFMIF is a design project for an intense neutron source for fusion materials studies at high radiation damage levels. The neutrons will be generated by a Li(d,xn) stripping reaction, bombarding liquid lithium with deuterium ions at energy of about 40 MeV. IFMIF is currently in the Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) phase as part of the Japan-Europe Broader Approach to fusion energy.
- IFMIF Project site.
- IFMIF Intermediate Engineering Design Report (IIEDF) survey article (J. Knaster et al., Nuclear Fusion (2015).)
- See the presentation Accelerator-Based Materials Irradiation Facilities by J. Knaster and A. Ibarra at the 5th High Power Targetry Workshop, 20‐23 May 2014, FNAL, Chicago, USA.
Facilities for ion irradiation for fusion studies
Electrostatic ion accelerators
Single and Tandem accelerators; Van de Graaff, Pelletron, Tandetron and other.
- Tandem accelerator and other experimental infrastructure, Plasma-Wall Interaction Project, Division Edge and Wall, IPP Garching, Germany.
- Ion Beam Laboratory at Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), Albuquerque, NM, USA. Facilities include an HVE 6MV Tandem, NEC 1MV Tandem and NEC 3MV Pelletron.
- Ion accelerators at Dalton Cumbrian Facility, University of Manchester, UK.
- Dual-Beam Facility for Energy Science and Technology (DuET), Kimura Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Energy, University of Kyoto, Japan.
- Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory (MIBL) for Surface Modification and Analysis, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, USA.
- Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois, USA.
- Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California, USA.
- Joint Accelerators for Nano-science and Nuclear Simulation (JANNuS), CEA, CNRS and Université Paris-Sud, Saclay, France.
- Tandem accelerator, JAEA Department of Research Reactor and Tandem Accelerator, Tokai-mura, Naka, Japan.
- High Fluence Irradiation Facility at University of Tokyo (HIT), Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology, Tokai Campus, Japan.
- Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA), Department of Advanced Radiation Technology, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST), Takasaki, Japan.
- 1.7 MV Tandetron Accelerator in Materials Science Group at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam, India.
- Pelletron laboratory at Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, India.
- Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Physics, National Centre for Scientific Research "Demokritos" (NCSRD), Athens, Greece.
- Centre for Micro Analysis of Materials (CMAM), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM), Madrid, Spain.
- Van de Graaff accelerator at CEMHTI-CNRS, Orléans, France.
- Tandem accelerator at Peter Grünberg Institute, Jülich Centre for Neutron Science, Jülich, Germany.
- 2MV HVEE Tandetron accelerator at Microanalytical Centre, Josef Stefan Institute (JSI), Ljubljana, Slovenia.
- High Voltage Engineering (HVE) Van de Graaff accellerator at Center for Microanalysis of Materials (CMM), University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA.
Other ion sources for fusion studies
- Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), CAS Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Lanzhou, China.
- Radioactive ion beam facility SPIRAL-2, GANIL, Caen, France.
More links to follow.
Other lists of ion beam facilities relevant to fusion
- Table 1, Experimental capabilities of selected ion accelerator facilities used for radiation damage studies of nuclear materials, in (Wady et al., NIMA, 2016).
- Table I, Research centers in the world dedicated to irradiation technologies, in the conference paper (Voyevodin et al., 2014).
- Note the report of a Workshop on Science Applications of a Triple Beam Capability for Advanced Nuclear Energy Materials (LLNL, 2009); in particular Table III, a list of the various multi-ion-beam and ion-beam–TEM facilities in the world.
Facilities for characterization of fusion materials and of plasma-material interaction
This Section is a placeholder; we need to find a better source of data.
- Note the IMPACT and PRIME Laboratories at the Center for Materials Under eXtreme Environment (CMUXE) at Purdue University.
Other inventories or databases of neutron sources and ion beam irradiation facilities
The following links provide broader inventories of possibly relevant neutron and ion sources, without special focus on applications to fusion materials studies or fusion-oriented plasma-material interaction.
- The web site Neutronsources.org aims to provide information about neutron facilities and neutron research worldwide.
- Note the database of spallation neutron sources, which is a component of the Accelerator Knowledge Portal maintained by the Physics Section at IAEA.
- Note the IAEA (Physics Section) Technical Document "Compendium of Neutron Beam Facilities for High Precision Nuclear Data Measurements".
- Note a presentation Spallation Neutron Sources Around the World by B. Riemer at the 5th High Power Targetry Workshop, 20‐23 May 2014, FNAL, Chicago, USA.
- Note a presentation Prospects for Future Neutron Facilities by J. M. Carpenter at the XIV School of Neutron Scattering (SoNS) International School of Neutron Science and Instrumentation, 1-9 April 2016, Erice, Sicily, Italy.
- Note the database of electrostatic accelerators, a component of the Accelerator Knowledge Portal maintained by the Physics Section at IAEA.
- Note the web page Ion beam accelerators around the world, a list of accelerators used for ion-beam analysis or materials modification.
- Note the Research and Test Facilities DataBase (RTFDB) at NEA, OECD; in particular the Search for Accelerator Facilities.
- Note the web page Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) Laboratories; a list of web links to AMS labs around the world.
- Note the NuPECC Handbook, International Access to Nuclear Physics Facilities in Europe (6th edition, 2012).
- Note the presentation Beam Test Possibilities in Japan by Tatsushi Takamoto (2012).
International Conference on Ion Beam Modification Of Materials (IBMM).
- 20th IBMM, 31 Oct - 04 Nov 2016, Wellington, New Zealand.
- 19th IBMM, 14-19 Sep 2014, Leuven, Belgium. (Journal link: NIMB 2015, v365A.)
- 18th IBMM, 02-07 Sep 2012, Qingdao, China. (Journal link: NIMB 2013, v307.)
International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis (IBA).
- 23rd IBA, 15-21 Oct 2017, Shanghai, China.
- 22nd IBA, 14-19 Jun 2015, Opatija, Croatia.
- 21st IBA, 23-28 Jun 2013, Seattle, WA, USA. (Journal link: NIMB 2014, v332.)
International Symposium on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter (SHIM).
- 9th SHIM, 19-21 May 2015, Darmstadt, Germany. (Journal link: NIMB 2015, v365B.)
- 8th SHIM, 24-27 Oct 2012, Kyoto, Japan. (Journal link: NIMB 2013, v314.)
International Conference on Computer Simulation of Radiation Effects in Solids (COSIRES).
- 13th COSIRES, 19-24 Jun 2016, Loughborough, UK.
- 12th COSIRES, 08-13 Jun 2014, Alicante, Spain. (Journal link: NIMB 2015, v352.)
- 11th COSIRES, 24-29 Jun 2012, Santa Fe, NM, USA. (Journal link: NIMB 2013, v303.)
International Meeting on Recent Developments in the Study of Radiation Effects in Matter (REM).
- 9th REM, 26-28 Oct 2016, Kyoto, Japan.
- 8th REM, 20-23 Sep 2015, Kerteminde, Denmark.
- 7th REM, 09-12 Jul 2014, Budapest, Hungary.
- 6th REM, 23-25 Oct 2013, Gatlinburg, TN, USA.
- 5th REM, 01-05 Jul 2012, Kona, HI, USA.
International Conference on Radiation Effects in Insulators (REI).
- 18th REI, 26-31 Oct 2015, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
- 17th REI, 30 Jun - 05 Jul 2013, Helsinki, Finland. (Journal link: NIMB 2014, v326.)
- ↑ Kuteev, B. V., P. R. Goncharov, V. Yu Sergeev, and V. I. Khripunov. "Intense fusion neutron sources." Plasma physics reports 36, no. 4 (2010): 281-317. Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1063780X1004001X
- ↑ Zinkle, Steven J., and Anton Möslang. "Evaluation of irradiation facility options for fusion materials research and development." Fusion Engineering and Design 88, no. 6 (2013): 472-482. Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2013.02.081
- ↑ Vladimirov, P., and A. Möslang. "Comparison of material irradiation conditions for fusion, spallation, stripping and fission neutron sources." Journal of nuclear materials 329 (2004): 233-237. Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2004.04.030
- ↑ Knaster, J., A. Möslang, T. Muroga: "Materials research for fusion", Nature Physics 2016 ..., online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nphys3735
- ↑ International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA): "Applications of Research Reactors towards Research on Materials for Nuclear Fusion Technology" (Proceedings of a Technical Meeting held in Vienna, 27-29 June 2011), IAEA TECDOC No. 1724 (2013). Online: http://www-pub.iaea.org/books/IAEABooks/10574/Applications-of-Research-Reactors-towards-Research-on-Materials-for-Nuclear-Fusion-Technology
- ↑ Valkovic, Vladivoj. 14 MeV Neutrons: Physics and Applications. CRC Press, 2015.
- ↑ Knaster, Juan, A. Ibarra, J. Abal, A. Abou-Sena, F. Arbeiter, F. Arranz, J. M. Arroyo et al. "The accomplishment of the Engineering Design Activities of IFMIF/EVEDA: The European–Japanese project towards a Li (d, xn) fusion relevant neutron source." Nuclear Fusion 55, no. 8 (2015): 086003. Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/55/8/086003
- ↑ Wady, P. T., A. Draude, S. M. Shubeita, A. D. Smith, N. Mason, S. M. Pimblott, and E. Jimenez-Melero. "Accelerated radiation damage test facility using a 5MV tandem ion accelerator." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 806 (2016): 109-116. Online: doi:10.1016/j.nima.2015.09.088
- ↑ Voyevodin, V. N., V. V. Bryk, A. S. Kalchenko, I. M. Neklyudov, and G. D. Tolstolutskaya. "Simulation technologies in modern radiation material science." Вопросы атомной науки и техники (2014). Online: pdf
- ↑ Katabuchi, Tatsuya, and Danas Ridikas. "Compendium of Neutron Beam Facilities for High Precision Nuclear Data Measurements." IAEA-TECDOC-1743 (2014). Online: http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/TE-1743_web.pdf.